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The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America by Richard Rothstein
Call Number: Essential Read
Publication Date: New York: Liveright, 2017
In this groundbreaking history of the modern American metropolis, Richard Rothstein, a leading authority on housing policy, explodes the myth that America's cities came to be racially divided through de facto segregation--that is, through individual prejudices, income differences, or the actions of private institutions like banks and real estate agencies. Rather, The Color of Law incontrovertibly makes clear that it was de jure segregation--the laws and policy decisions passed by local, state, and federal governments--that actually promoted the discriminatory patterns that continue to this day.
Race for Profit: How Banks and the Real Estate Industry Undermined Black Homeownership by Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor
"Structural barriers stopped many people who were not white from buying property and building wealth for most of the last century. In Minneapolis, these restrictions served as powerful obstacles for people of color seeking safe and affordable housing. They also limited access to community resources like parks and schools. Racial covenants dovetailed with redlining and predatory lending practices to depress homeownership rates for African Americans. Contemporary white residents of Minneapolis like to think their city never had formal segregation. But racial covenants did the work of Jim Crow in northern cities like Minneapolis." About section of website.
"Mapping Inequality brings one of the country's most important archives to the public.Home Owners' Loan Corporation documents contain a wealth of information about how government officials, lenders, and real estate interests surveyed and ensured the economic health of American cities." Scholars have now come to understand that these risk assessment practices are "some of the most important factors in preserving racial segregation, intergenerational poverty, and the continued wealth gap between white Americans and most other groups in the U.S." -- Introduction section of website.
"For most of its history Seattle was a segregated city, as committed to white supremacy as any location in America. People of color were excluded from most jobs, most neighborhoods and schools, and many stores, restaurants, hotels, and other commercial establishments, even hospitals." -- Website. Segregated Seattle is an extraordinary collection of primary and secondary source materials, in the forms of maps, interviews, news articles, research reports, and many other sources, illustrating how racially restrictive covenants formed the basis of a segregated Northern city.