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American Psychological Association Style Guide - 7th Edition

Book: One Author

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 321

In-Text

Model

(Author Last Name, Year)

Example

(Bailey, 2018)
 

Reference 

Model

Author last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Name of work (italicized). Publisher's Name.

Example

Bailey, L. (2018). Because we are bad: OCD and a girl lost in thought. Harper.

Link to Record

Book: Two Authors

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 321

In-Text

Model

(Author 1 Last name & Author 2 Last name, Year)

Example

(Holland & Halper, 2005)
 

Reference

Model

Author1 Last name, First initial. Middle initial., & Author2 Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Name of work (italicized). Publisher's Name.

Example

Holland, N. J. & Halper, J. (2005). Multiple sclerosis a self-care guide to wellness. Demos Health.

Link to Record

Book: Three to Twenty Authors

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 321

In-Text

Model

(Author1 Last name et. al., Year)

Example

(O'Cadiz et. al., 2008)
 

Reference

Model:

Author1 Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Author2 Last name, First initial. Middle initial., & Author3 Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Name of work (italicized). Publisher's Name.

Example:

O'Cadiz, P., Wong, P., & Torres, C. (2008). Education and democracy. Westview Press.

Link to Record
 

Helpful Hints

APA7 does not distinguish between books and ebooks if there is no DOI or non-database URL. If there is a DOI or non-database URL, include it at the end of the reference. Always choose a DOI if there is both a DOI and a URL.

If there are more than two authors, your in-text citation will list only the first author with et. al. For ex.: (Davis et. al., 2019).

Ebook with a DOI

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 321

In-Text

Model

(Author1 Last name & Author2 Last name, Year)

Example

(Brennan & Magness, 2019)
 

Reference

Model

Author 1 Last name, First initial. Middle initial. & Author 2 Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of work. Publisher. DOI

Example

Brennan, J. & Magness, P. W. (2019). Cracks in the ivory tower: The moral mess of higher education. Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190846282.001.0001

Link to Record

Ebook with non-database URL

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 321

In-Text

Model

(Author Last name, Year)

Example

(Hirsch, 2012)
 

Reference

Model

Author Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of work (italicized). Publisher. URL

Example

Hirsch, B. D. (Ed). (2012). Digital humanities pedagogy: Practices, principles and politics. OpenBook Publishers. https://www.openbookpublishers.com/product/161/

Link to Record

Helpful Hints

Include DOI when available.

Include non-database URL when there is no DOI and the link leads you to an available resource and you don't have to enter login credentials to view the source (i.e. you don't need a URL when the book is in a library database).

Book: One Editor

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 322

In-Text

Model

(Editor Last name, Year)

Example

(De Santis, 2012)
 

Reference

Model

Editor Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Ed.). (Year). Name of work (italicized). Publisher's Name.

Example

De Santis, G. (Ed.). (2012). The family, the market or the state?: Intergenerational support under pressure in ageing societies. Springer.

Link to Record

Book: Multiple Editors 

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 322

In-Text

Model

(Editor 1 Last name & Editor 2 Last name, Year)

Example

(Nilsen & Gustafsson, 2016)
 

Reference

Model

Editor 1 Last name, First initial. Middle initial. and Editor 2 Last Name, First initial. Middle initial. (Eds.). (Year). Name of work (italicized). Publisher. DOI

Example

Nilsen, T and Gustafsson, J. (Eds.). (2016). Teacher quality, instructional quality and student outcomes: Relationships across countries, cohorts and time. Springer. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-41252-8

Link to Record

Helpful Hints

If there are two editors, you would include both names in the in-text citation. For three or more, you would include the first author's last name and then "et. al." in the in-text citation.

If you're citing an ebook version of an edited book that has a DOI or a non-database URL that does not require login for access, include it at the end of your reference list citation.

Chapter: Edited Book

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 326

In-Text

Model

(Chapter Author Last name, Year)

Example

(Davis, 2019)
 

Reference

Model

Chapter Author Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of chapter. In Editor First initial. Editor Last name (Ed.), Title of Book (pp. #-#). Publisher. DOI if applicable

Example

Davis, J. (2019). Authenticity, digital media, and person identity verification. In J. E. Stets & R. T. Serpe (Eds.), Identities in Everyday Life (pp. 94-108). Oxford University Press. DOI:10.1093/oso/9780190873066.001.0001

Link to Record

Chapter: Edited Volume in a Series

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 328

In-Text

Model

(Chapter Author Last name, Year)

Example

(Lauder, 2019)
 

Reference

Model

Chapter Author Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of chapter. In Editor First initial. Last name (Series Ed.), Title of work: Vol. #. Volume title (pp. #-#). Publisher. DOI if applicable

Example

Lauder, C. (2019). Constructing hidden narratives: The history of the Institute for Advanced Studies in the Humanities (IASH), at the University of Edinburgh, 1969–2013. In M. Feingold (Series Ed.), History of Universities: Vol. XXXI / 2​ (pp. 173-197). Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198835509.001.0001

Link to Record

Book: Author and Editor

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 322

In-Text

Model

(Author Last name, Year)

Example

(Solomon-Godeau, 2017)
 

Reference

Model

Author Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Name of work (italicized). Editor First initial. Last name (Ed.). Publisher's Name.

Example

Solomon-Godeau, A. (2017). Photography after photography: Gender, genre, and history. S. Parsons (Ed.). Duke University Press.

Link to Record

Republished Book or Ebook

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 323

In-Text

Model

(Author last name, Year of original publication/Year of republication)

Example

(Freud, 1900/2010)
 

Reference

Model

Author Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year of republication). Title of work. (Editor first initial. Last name or Translator First initial. Last name (Ed. or Trans.). Publisher's Name. DOI if applicable (Original work published year)

Example

Freud, S. (2010). The interpretation of dreams. (J. Strachey, Ed. & Trans.). Basic Books. (Original work published 1900)

Link to Record

Book Republished in Translation

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 323

In-Text

Model

(Author Last name, Year of republication)

Example

(Equiano, 2001)
 

Reference

Model

Author Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year of republication). Title of work. In Editor or Translator First initial. Last name (Ed. or Trans.). Republisher's Name. (Original work published year)

Example

Equiano, O. (2001). The interesting narrative of the life of Olaudah Equano or Gustavus Vassa, the African. In A. Costanzo (Trans.). Broadview Press. (Original work published 1789)

Link to Record

Reference Book: Dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 324

In-Text

Model

(Corporate Author Name, Year)

Example

(Merriam-Webster, n.d.)
 

Reference

Model

Corporate Author Name. (Year). Name of work. Publisher. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL.

Example

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved February 25, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/ 

Link to Record

Reference Book: Diagnostic manual

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 324

In-Text

Model: First citation

(Edition ed.; Abbreviation; Corporate Author Name, Year)

Model: Subsequent citations

(Corporate Author Name, Year)

Example: First Citation

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013)

Example: Subsequent Citations

(American Psychiatric Association, 2013)
 

Reference

Model

Corporate Author. (Year). Name of work. Publisher's Name.

Example

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). 

Link to Record

Helpful Hints

Include retrieval date if you're not using a stable, archived version.

If author and publisher are the same, omit publisher.

Entry in an Online Reference Work: Individual Author

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 328

In-Text

Model

(Author Last name, Year)

Example

(Rafferty, 2020)
 

Reference

Model

Author Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Entry title. In Editor First initial. Middle initial. Last name (Ed.), Name of work (Edition number or year). Publisher. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL.

Example

Rafferty, J. P. (2020). Is climate change real? In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved April 30, 2020, from https://www.britannica.com/story/do-sharks-sleep

Link to Record

Helpful Hints

If there is no specific editor, omit Ed. from reference. 

Entry in an Online Reference Work: Group Author

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 328

In-Text

Model

(Group Author, Year)

Example

(Oxford English Dictionary, n.d.)
 

Reference

Model

Group Author. (Year). Entry title. In Name of work (Edition number or year). Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL

Example

Oxford English Dictionary. (n.d.) Wordlore, n. In oed.com dictionary. Retrieved Feb. 25, 2020 from https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/230203?redirectedFrom=wordlorist#eid14325528

Link to Record

Helpful Hints

When the online work is updated constantly, use n.d. for no date and include a retrieval date.

Religious Work

Publication Manual of the APA, 2020, p. 325

In-Text

Model

(Title, Year/Original publication year if available)

Example

(The Qur'an, 2005)
 

Reference

Model

Title of work (Translator First initial. Second initial. Last name, Trans.). (Year). PublisherOriginal work publication date if available.

Example

The Qur'an (M. A. S. Abdel Haleem, Trans.). (2005). Oxford University Press.

Link to Record

Helpful Hints

Include Translator's name in reference if the work is translated (as in our example).

Include the year of original publication (if known) in the in-text citation and the references.

Article One

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 267

In-Text

Model

(Author Last name, Yeara)

Example

(Pemberton Strong, 2015a)
 

Reference

Model

Author Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Yeara). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers.

Example

Pemberton Strong, S. (2015a). How to make a birthday cake. Southwest Review, 100(3), 404.

Link to Record

Article Two

Publication Manual of the APA 2019 p. 267

In-Text

Model

(Author Last name, Yearb, Page number)

Example

(Pemberton Strong, 2015b)
 

Reference

Model

Author Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Yearb). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers.

Example

Pemberton Strong, S. (2015b, Winter). After this, Earth. Southern Review, 51(1), 107.

Link to Record

Helpful Hints

To determine which source should be "a" and which "b," look closely at the date. If there's only a year as in the first example, that will go before a more specific date. The second example was published in "Winter 2015" so it was placed second in the references list (see p. 305 in APA manual for more information). The in-text citation should only have the year-letter listing, for example (Pemberton Strong, 2015b), even though the reference list entry includes a more specific date: Pemberton Strong, S. (2015b, Winter).

Do not include database information unless knowing the database is necessary for retrieving the article.