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Welcome to the American Psychological Association (APA) Style Guide - 7th Edition!
This guide provides information for citing sources in the APA style, most commonly used in the social sciences. You'll find sample formatting information for creating in-text citations and reference entries.
Each example also cites the page number from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th Edition where you can find more information for developing your citations.
A Note on In-Text Citation
APA citation includes both an in-text citation and a reference entry for each source you use.
In-text citations can either be formatted parenthetically or narratively. The examples provided throughout this guide are for parenthetical citations, but you may also use the same elements in a narrative citation.
Parenthetical In-Text Citation
Narrative In-Text Citation
According to Davies (2018)...
In-text citations in which you directly quote or paraphrase material will require page numbers or paragraph numbers as the last element in your citation.
Parenthetical In-Text Citation with Page Number
(Davies, 2018, p. 12)
Narrative In-Text Citation with Page Number
According to Davies (2018) "adults who meditate at least once per week demonstrate significantly better mental and physical health outcomes than their peers who never meditate" (pp. 262-263).
You'll use the following abbreviations: p. 111 (for single page), pp. 111-112 (for multiple page), or para. 20 (for material without pagination). See p. 264 in the APA guide for more information on citing particular parts of a source.