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American Psychological Association Style Guide - 7th Edition

Email or Personal Interview

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 260

In-Text

Model

(Author First initial. Middle initial. Last name, personal communication, Month Day, Year)

Example

(E. Runyan, personal communication, November 7, 2019)
 

Reference

You won't make a reference entry for personal communications or interviews (see p. 260 for more information).

Helpful Hints

Personal communications might include email or personal interviews.

If you wish to cite a published interview, use the citation style for the format (i.e. magazine) the interview is published in.

Dissertation/Thesis from the Web

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 333

In-Text

Model

(Author Last name, Year)

Example

(Poudel, 2018)
 

Reference

Model

Author Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis [Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis, Institution]. Archive name. URL

Example

Poudel, R. (2018). Enzymatic activities and compositional properties of whole wheat flour. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Nebraska-Lincoln]. Digital Commons @ University of Nebraska-Lincoln. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/foodscidiss/97/

Link to Record

Helpful Hints

Dissertations that are unpublished generally must be retrieved directly from the degree-granting institution, and have different citation standards. Refer to page 333 of the APA guide for more information.

Data Set

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 337

In-Text

Model

(Author1 Last name et. al., Year)

Example

(Miech et. al., 2019)
 

Reference

Model

Author1 Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Author2 Last name, First initial Middle initial., Author3 Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Author4 Last name, First initial. Middle initial. & Author5 Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of data (ICPSR #; Version) [Data set and documentation]. URL

Example

Miech, R. A., Johnston, L. D., Bachman, J. G., O'Malley, P. M. & Schulenberg, J. E. (2018). Monitoring the future: A continuing study of American youth (12th-grade Survey) (ICPSR 37416; Version date: Nov 19, 2019). [Data set and documentation]. https://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NACJD/studies/37416/datadocumentation

Link to Record

Helpful Hints

You should cite a dataset if you have either used it to conduct secondary analysis, or if you created the data yourself and are presenting it in your current work.

For published data, the date will be the publication date. For unpublished data, the date will be the collection date.

Report by a Government Agency or Other Organization (Group Author)

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 329

In-Text

Model

(Name of Group, Year)

Example

(Bureau of the Fiscal Service, 2019)
 

Reference

Model

Name of Authoring Group. (Year). Title of report. Publisher. URL

Example

Bureau of the Fiscal Service. (2019). Financial report of the United States government. https://fiscal.treasury.gov/reports-statements/financial-report/current-report.html

Link to Record

Helpful Hints

When the publisher name and the author are the same, omit publisher name from the citation.

Report by a Government Agency or Other Organization (Group Author)

Publication Manual of the APA 2020 p. 330

In-Text

Model

(Author 1 Last name & Author 2 Last name, Year)

Example

(Goodman & Neal, 2019)
 

Reference

Model

Author1 Last name, First initial. Middle initial., & Author2 Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of report. Agency or Organization Name. URL

Example

Goodman, L., & Neal, M. (2020, July). New Mortgage Penalty Is Blocking Homeownership and Refinancing Opportunities for 255,000 Borrowers. Urban Institute. https://fiscal.treasury.gov/reports-statements/financial-report/current-report.html

Link to Record